Category: Allgemein

Intuitive Decision-Making Based on Expertise May Deliver Better Results Than Analytical Approach

Intuition may be just as effective in decision-making as an analytical approach — and sometimes more efficient and effective, depending on the decision-maker’s level of expertise on the subject at had, according to a new report in the Journal of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes by researchers from Boston College, George Mason University and Rice University.

“It turns out intuition isn’t always bad and there are conditions where it is a good way to make the right decision,” said co-author Michael Pratt, the O’Connor Family Professor of Management and Organization at Boston College’s Carroll School of Management. “What we found demystifies a lot of the information out there that says intuition isn’t as effective as if you sat down and walked through an analytical approach.”

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No intuitions no relativism

Norwegian philosopher Herman Cappelen interviewed by Richard Marshall.

Herman Cappelen is mounting a fierce defence of his armchair against the crazyist gang over at X-phi – although he doesn’t want his counter-attack to be just about X-phi. He expects it to run and run. He writes about when language talks about language. He thinks analytic relativism a mistake and that truth is monadic. He thinks talk of possible worlds is the path to many errors. He thinks Kripke original, deep and almost entirely true. He thinks Lewis original deep and almost entirely false (but dangerously seductive because his errors are hidden). All in all this is one groovaciously pugnacious philosophical dude…..

See on www.3ammagazine.com


Signale aus dem Innenleben. Wie Emotionen unser Leben bestimmen

Viele Philosophen haben den Menschen über seine Fähigkeit zur Vernunft definiert. Schon Aristoteles (384 – 322 v. Chr.) sprach vom „zoon logicon“, dem „vernunftbegabten Tier“. Hirnforscher und Kognitionspsychologen vertreten heute aber eine andere Ansicht als der große griechische Denker: Die Macht, die uns maßgeblich bestimmt, ist nicht die Vernunft. Es sind die Emotionen.

Rund um die Uhr, tagaus tagein, stehen wir unter ihrem Einfluss. Permanent generiert vom Gehirn, als Reaktionen auf den stetig eintreffenden Strom an Informationen, lenken Emotionen unser Denken und Handeln. Da nur ein kleiner Teil davon als bewusste Gefühle erlebt wird, erkennen wir oft selbst nicht, was uns gerade an- und umtreibt. Und oft erkennen andere unsere momentane emotionale Lage besser als wir selbst. Denn weil Emotionen im Leben von Menschen eine derart tragende Rolle spielen, hat der Mensch ein sehr sensibles Gespür dafür entwickelt, was andere empfinden und wie sie sich dabei fühlen.

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10 Good Reasons Not to Trust Your Brain

The human brain is a marvelous tool. However, it was designed for a very different world than we currently live in. As a result, it retains many design flaws that do not serve us well, especially in today’s business world where new ways of thinking and ongoing innovation are essential for success.

Perhaps the most damaging flaw is the brain’s tendency to think it’s right. In fact, it often insists it is right even in the face of contradictory evidence. So the next time you’re absolutely, positively sure you’re right, consider these 10 reasons not to trust your brain:

1. It jumps to conclusions.
The brain loves to solve problems. But as soon as a solution presents itself, the brain wants to accept it as the solution. Case closed – let’s move on to the next problem! No seeking alternative answers; no exploring possibilities. Not a good approach considering most business problems have more than one good solution and the act of exploring multiple right answers often opens doors to all sorts of success.Weiterlesen


Verhaltensforschung: Unsere Intuition ist nicht egoistisch

Der Mensch scheint von Grund auf uneigennützig zu sein. Zumindest dann, wenn er keine Zeit zum Nachdenken hat. Wer spontan handelt, ist großzügiger. Ein trauriges Bild zeichnete der Philosoph Thomas Hobbes in seinem Werk Leviathan vom Menschen: Wie ein Wolf sei dieser nur dann zur Kooperation bereit, wenn sie seinem eigenen Vorteil diene. Permanent führe er also Krieg gegen alle anderen. 300 Jahre später zweifeln Verhaltensforscher dieses Menschenbild an: Amerikanische Psychologen um David Rand von der Harvard Universität konnten zeigen, dass Menschen intuitiv danach streben, dem Gemeinwohl zu dienen. Egoistische Entscheidungen seien hingegen meist das Ergebnis sorgfältiger Überlegungen, schreiben die Forscher im Magazin Nature. Laut Rand sind Intuition und Verstand die zwei zentralen Triebfedern unseres Handelns. Um herauszufinden, welches der beiden Denkmuster uns zu eigennützigem Verhalten bewegt, führten er und sein Team insgesamt zehn verschiedene Experimente durch. Für das erste stellten die US-Psychologen Aufgaben ins Netz, für die sich 212 Personen anmeldeten.Die Probanden wurden zunächst in Vierergruppen aufgeteilt. Jedes Mitglied einer Gruppe erhielt dann die Anweisung, einen beliebigen Anteil seines Lohns in eine Gemeinschaftskasse einzuzahlen. Die Forscher teilten ihnen mit, dass jeder eingezahlte Beitrag verdoppelt und der Gesamtbetrag schließlich gerecht unter allen vier Gruppenmitgliedern aufgeteilt würde…..

Artikel unter www.zeit.de


Freud on Creative Writing and Daydreaming

“The opposite of play is not what is serious but what is real.”

Should we not look for the first traces of imaginative activity as early as in childhood? The child’s best-loved and most intense occupation is with his play or games. Might we not say that every child at play behaves like a creative writer, in that he creates a world of his own, or, rather, rearranges the things of his world in a new way which pleases him? It would be wrong to think he does not take that world seriously; on the contrary, he takes his play very seriously and he expends large amounts of emotion on it. The opposite of play is not what is serious but what is real. In spite of all the emotion with which he cathects his world of play, the child distinguishes it quite well from reality; and he likes to link his imagined objects and situations to the tangible and visible things of the real world. This linking is all that differentiates the child’s ‘play’ from ‘phantasying.’ The creative writer does the same as the child at play. He creates a world of phantasy which he takes very seriously — that is, which he invests with large amounts of emotion — while separating it sharply from reality.

See on www.brainpickings.org


The neurological basis of intuition

Most of us have experienced the vague feeling of knowing something without having any memory of learning it. This phenomenon is commonly known as a “gut feeling” or “intuition”; more accurately though, it is described as implicit or unconscious recognition memory, to reflect the fact that it arises from information that was not attended to, but which is processed, and can subsequently be retrieved, without ever entering into conscious awareness.

According to a new study, our gut feelings can enhance the retrieval of explicitly encoded memories – those memories which we encode actively – and therefore lead to improved accuracy in simple decisions. The study, which is published online in Nature Neuroscience, also provides evidence that the retrieval of explicit and implicit memories involves distinct neural substrates and mechanisms.

The distinction between explicit and implicit memory has been recognized for centuries. We know, from studies of amnesic patients carried out since the 1950s, that implicit memories can influence behaviour, because such patients can learn to perform new motor skills despite having severe deficits in other forms of memory. Thus, the term implicit memory refers to the phenomenon whereby previous experience, of which one is not consciously aware, can aid performance on specific tasks.Weiterlesen


Entscheidungen prägen unsere Vorlieben

Entscheidungen gehören nicht nur zum Leben wie Atmen und Schlafen, sondern prägen häufig auch unsere Vorlieben – laut einer neuen Studie sogar noch Jahre später.

Mehr als 50 Jahre ist es nun her, dass der US-Psychologe Leon Festinger die Theorie der kognitiven Dissonanz postulierte – doch seine wissenschaftlichen Nachfahren diskutieren die Erkenntnis noch heute.

Hinter der Dissonanz verbirgt sich ein unangenehmes Gefühl, das immer dann auftritt, wenn in unserem Kopf verschiedene Absichten, Wünsche oder Gedanken aufeinanderprallen. Und dieses Gefühl wollen wir so schnell wie möglich los werden.

Ein simples Beispiel: Angenommen, wir müssen zwischen zwei Alternativen wählen, sagen wir Urlaub am Strand oder in den Bergen. Nehmen wir weiter an, wir entscheiden uns für den Strand. Nun wäre es sinnlos, sich weiter mit dem Urlaub in den Bergen zu beschäftigen – selbst wenn der vielleicht auch schön wäre. Doch wir haben uns nun mal für den Strand entschieden. Und dadurch schätzen wir den nun höher ein als die Berge – obwohl es dafür objektiv keinen Grund gibt. Die Entscheidung hat unsere Vorlieben geprägt.Weiterlesen


4 Reasons to Develop Practical Intuition

Intuition is emerging from a cloud of mystery. Once considered a gift bestowed on only a few, intuition is becoming recognized as a natural skill that anyone can develop. Everyone is born with the capacity for intuition—the ability to know something without knowing how you know. Intuitive perception plays an important, yet often unconscious role in everyday decision-making. Many people rely on what they call a hunch, heart feeling, gut feeling or just a sense of “inner knowing” in making decisions in business, medical diagnosis, law enforcement, sports, relationships, driving defensively, parenting, teaching, and more.

See on www.care2.com


6 Tips to Help You Tap Into Your Intuition | Chloe Park

There’s something called a “Truthometer” that lives inside your body. Its location is around the sternum region, in between the front and back ribcage, slightly left to the center of the chest. Aha! The Heart! There’s another one too—this one is below the navel, underneath the belly bottom, on top of the pubic region—otherwise known as the gut. The heart and gut are two places in the body where if your mind is connected to—you can navigate through life real gracefully and seamlessly. We’re all paving the path of our lives in resonance to our Truth, whatever that may mean for you. Here are some ways in which to help guide you on your way of listening to your INTUITION, “inner knowing” and/or TRUTHWeiterlesen


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